发布时间: 2016-04-15 16:14:07  |  来源: 中国网  |  作者:  |  责任编辑: 李潇

一、公民权利遭到肆意侵犯 I. Wanton Infringement on Civil Rights
2015年,美国枪支犯罪猖獗,警察滥用暴力,监狱腐败严重,秘密监控个人信息频现,公民权利遭到肆意侵犯。 Civil rights were wantonly infringed upon in the United States in 2015 with rampant gun-related crimes, excessive use of force by police, severe corruption in prisons and frequent occurrence of illegal eavesdropping on personal information.
暴力犯罪威胁公民生命和财产安全。据美国联邦调查局2015年发布的《美国犯罪报告》,2014年美国共发生暴力犯罪1165383起,平均每十万居民中发生365.5起,其中谋杀案件14249起,强奸案件84041起,抢劫案件325802起,严重暴力伤害案件741291起;共发生财产犯罪案件8277829起,平均每十万居民中发生2596.1起,被害人因财产犯罪遭受的损失超过143亿美元。(注1)英国《经济学人》网站2015年12月1日刊文分析,美国一些城市的犯罪率大幅攀升,巴尔的摩和圣路易斯2015年上半年的谋杀率分别比去年同期增长了48%和59%。(注2)美国国家帮派研究中心的詹姆斯·豪威尔指出,美国过去5年帮派数量增长8%,帮派成员数量增长11%,与帮派相关的谋杀案增加23%。(注3) Citizen's life and property security were threatened by violent crimes. According to the report "Crime in the United States" released by the FBI in 2015, an estimated 1,165,383 violent crimes occurred nationwide in 2014, of which 14,249 were murders, 84,041 were rapes, 325,802 robberies and 741,291 aggravated assaults. Nationwide, there were an estimated 8,277,829 property crimes, with the victims of such crimes suffering losses calculated at an estimated 14.3 billion U.S. dollars. The statistics showed the estimated rate of violent crime was 365.5 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, and the property crime rate was 2,596.1 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants (www.fbi.gov). Many cities in the United States saw large jumps in crime during the first half of 2015: the murder rate rose 48 percent and 59 percent compared to the same period of the previous year in Baltimore and St. Louis, respectively, said an article carried by the Economist website on December 1, 2015 (www.economist.com, December 1, 2015). James Howell of the U.S. National Gang Center pointed out that in the past five years the United States had seen an 8 percent increase in the number of gangs, an 11 percent increase in members and a 23 percent increase in gang-related homicides (www.usnews.com, March 6, 2015).
枪支泛滥造成公民生命权无法得到保障。统计显示,美国有3亿多人口,私人枪支保有量逾3亿支。过去10年里,超过400万美国人成为袭击、抢劫和其他涉枪犯罪的受害者。据美国枪支暴力档案室发布的《2015年枪支暴力伤亡统计》,截至2015年12月28日,美国当年共发生枪击事件51675起,其中大规模枪击事件329起;共造成13136人死亡、26493人受伤。(注4)美国联邦调查局2015年发布的《美国犯罪报告》显示,2014年美国发生的谋杀案件中有67.9%使用枪支,抢劫案件中有40.3%使用枪支,严重暴力袭击案中有22.5%使用枪支。(注5) Citizen's right of life could not be guaranteed with the rampant use of guns. Statistics showed that there were more than 300 million guns in the United States which had a population of more than 300 million. Over the past decade, more than 4 million U.S. citizens became victims of assaults, robberies and other gun-related crimes. According to a toll report by the Gun Violence Archive, there were a total of 51,675 gun violence incidents in the United States last year as of December 28, including 329 mass shootings. Altogether 13,136 were killed and 26,493 injured (www.gunviolencearchive.org, December 28, 2015). According to the report "Crime in the United States" released by the FBI in 2015, firearms were used in 67.9 percent of the nation's murders, 40.3 percent of robberies, and 22.5 percent of aggravated assaults in 2014 (www.fbi.gov).
警察暴力执法严重侵犯人权。美国警方在执法过程中过度使用暴力,造成大量普通公民伤亡。据《华盛顿邮报》网站统计,截至2015年12月24日,警察当年共射杀965人。(注6)巴尔的摩25岁非洲裔男子弗雷迪·格雷因警察暴力致死,引发了“为弗雷迪伸张正义”的抗议活动。(注7)射杀17岁非洲裔男孩麦克唐纳的芝加哥警察,迟迟未被起诉,公众为此举行抗议游行。该警察之前曾遭20项投诉,未受到任何追究。(注8)美国全国广播公司2015年11月19日报道,明尼阿波利斯市24岁的非洲裔男子贾马尔·克拉克在已被警方控制的情况下被击毙,民众包围警察局抗议示威,引发暴力冲突。(注9) Excessive use of violence by police gravely violated human rights. Excessive use of violence by police during law enforcement had resulted in a large number of civilian casualties. Police shot dead 965 people last year as of December 24, according to data posted on The Washington Post website (www.washingtonpost.com, December 24, 2015). Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old African-American man, died while in police custody in Baltimore. His death, reportedly a result of violence by the police, sparked "Justice for Freddie" protests (www.usatoday.com, December 22, 2015). Outraged that it took too long to charge a Chicago police officer in African-American Laquan MacDonald's shooting death, demonstrators took to the street to demand justice in his death. The police officer had a history of 20 complaints before he gunned down the 17-year-old, but none resulted in discipline (edition.cnn.com, November 26, 2015). According to a report by the NBC News on November 19, 2015, protestors camped outside a police precinct in Minneapolis after African-American Jamar Clark, 24, was shot dead when he was already under police control. The demonstrations turned violent later (www.nbc.com, November 19, 2015).
政府秘密监控公民个人信息侵犯公民隐私。据《华盛顿邮报》网站2015年12月1日报道,美国联邦调查局利用其特权强迫互联网公司未经法庭批准向其提供用户信息,包括全部的网络浏览记录。(注10)皮尤研究中心2015年5月29日发布的报告显示,大多数美国人反对政府大规模收集公民信息,有三分之二的人认为政府在收集信息方面没有足够的限制,61%的人越来越怀疑政府相关计划的目的,54%的人反对政府将收集电话和互联网信息作为反恐的手段,74%的人不同意为了安全的目的放弃隐私权和自由,93%的人认为应对收集信息的人加以管控,90%的人认为应对收集何种私人信息的种类加强管控。(注11) The government infringed on citizens' privacy by illegally eavesdropping personal information. According to a report carried by the website of The Washington Post on December 1, 2015, the FBI used special authority to compel Internet firms to hand over user information, including full browsing histories, without court approvals (www.washingtonpost.com, December 1, 2015). According to a report released by the Pew Research Center on May 29, 2015, a majority of Americans opposed the government collecting bulk data on its citizens, two-thirds believed there weren't adequate limits on what types of data could be collected, 61 percent said they had become less confident that the programs were serving the public interests, 54 percent of Americans disapproved of the U.S. government's collection of telephone and Internet data as part of anti-terrorism efforts, and 74 percent said they should not give up privacy and freedom for the sake of safety. Most said it was important to control who could get their information (93 percent), as well as what information about them was collected (90 percent) (www.pewresearch.org, May 29, 2015).
狱警肆意践踏囚犯人权。据《迈阿密先驱报》网站2015年12月连续报道,美国最大的女子监狱罗维尔监狱充斥着腐败、酷刑和性虐待,狱警将数百名女囚视为妓女,逼迫她们卖淫以换取基本的生活物资、保护或奖励。在过去十年间已有57名囚犯死在了该监狱,该数字尚未包括被送往医院的囚犯。(注12)《华盛顿邮报》网站2015年5月13日报道,费尔法克斯郡一所监狱的狱警用电击枪将女性精神病患者娜塔莎·麦肯娜杀害。(注13)福克斯新闻网网站2015年4月9日报道,佛罗里达州一所监狱的狱警被控虐待和杀害囚犯,其中患有精神疾患的囚犯达伦·莱尼被强迫淋浴长达两个小时,水温高达华氏180度。他虽大声求饶呼救,却无人理睬,最后竟被活活烫死。(注14) Prison guards wantonly trampled on prisoners' human rights. According to a serial report on the website of the Miami Herald in December 2015, Lowell Correctional Institution, the nation's largest women's prison, was haunted by corruption, torment and sex abuse. The guards took hundreds of female inmates as whores and pressured them to barter sex for basic necessities, a shield from abuse or awards. In the past 10 years 57 inmates died in the prison, not accounting those who make it to hospital (www.miamiherald.com, December 12, 13 and 16, 2015). The Washington Post reported on its website on May 13, 2015 that a guard in the Fairfax County jail killed a mentally ill woman, Natasha McKenna, with a Taser stun gun (www.washingtonpost.com, May 13, 2015). The Fox News reported on its website on April 9, 2015 that guards in a prison in Florida was accused of abusing and even killing inmates. In one case, a mentally-ill inmate Darren Rainey was forced to take a shower for two hours with the water reportedly rigged to a scalding 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Despite his calls for help, no one came. He reportedly died after his skin was partially burned off his body (www.foxnews.com, April 9, 2015).

(注1) 美国联邦调查局报告,见www.fbi.gov。

(注2) 英国《经济学人》网站(www.economist.com),2015年12月1日。

(注3) 《美国新闻与世界报道》网站(www.usnews.com),2015年3月6日。

(注4) 美国枪支暴力档案室网站(www.gunviolencearchive.org),2015年12月28日。

(注5) 美国联邦调查局报告,见www.fbi.gov。

(注6) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年12月24日。

(注7) 今日美国网站(www.usatoday.com),2015年12月22日。

(注8) 美国有线电视新闻网网站(edition.cnn.com),2015年11月26日。

(注9) 美国全国广播公司网站(www.nbc.com),2015年11月19日。

(注10) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年12月1日。

(注11) 皮尤中心网站(www.pewresearch.org),2015年5月29日。

(注12) 《迈阿密先驱报》网站(www.miamiherald.com),2015年12月12日、13日、16日。

(注13) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年5月13日。

(注14) 福克斯新闻网网站(www.foxnews.com),2015年4月9日。

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