发布时间: 2016-04-15 16:14:07  |  来源: 中国网  |  作者:  |  责任编辑: 李潇
五、妇女和儿童权利堪忧 V. Missing Rights for Women and Children
2015年,美国妇女和儿童权利受到严重侵犯。妇女遭受职场歧视、家庭暴力和性侵犯的情况严重,儿童面临枪支、虐待、贫困和警察暴力的威胁。 Rights of women and children were grossly violated in the United States in 2015. Women were facing serious workplace discrimination, domestic violence and sexual violation and children were under the threats of arms, abuse, poverty and police violence.
女性社会地位下降。2015年12月11日,联合国“在法律和实践中歧视妇女问题工作组”实地考察后指出,美国仍然没有落实普遍带薪产假、生育保健和政治选举中的平等机会等权利和保护措施。美国妇女在公共和政治领域的任职率、经济与社会权利保障、健康和安全保护等方面低于国际标准。女性在各州立法机构中所占席位平均值为24.9%,在全球仅排第72位。两性之间的收入差距为21%;过去十年,贫困妇女比例从12.1%上升至14.5%,该数字高于男性。贫困妇女、移徙妇女在获取性健康和生殖健康服务方面面临更大的障碍。缺乏枪支管制给妇女安全造成很大威胁,在一些家庭暴力案件中尤其严重,被拘留妇女和美洲原住民妇女遭受暴力的比例很高。(注70) Women were facing worsening situation of inferior social status. On December 11, 2015, the United Nations Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice delivered a statement after a mission to the United States and pointed out the missing rights and protections such as universal paid maternity leave, accessible reproductive health care and equal opportunity in standing for political election for the country's women. In the United States, women fell behind international standards as regards their public and political representation, their economic and social rights and their health and safety protections. Women's average representation in state legislatures was 24.9 percent. This rate placed the country at only the 72nd in global ranking. The gender wage gap was 21 percent. The percentage of women in poverty increased over the past decade, from 12.1 percent to 14.5 percent, with a higher rate of poverty than men. Poor and immigrant women faced severe barriers in accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Women faced fatal consequences of lack of gun control, in particular in cases of domestic violence. The statement also expressed concerns over violence against women in detention as well as the alarming high rates of violence against Native-American women (www.ohchr.org, December 11, 2015).
女性面临职场歧视。美国人口普查局2015年9月发布的数据显示,2014年全职女性比全职男性的平均年薪少10762美元,二者的平均年薪收入比为79∶100。(注71)国际劳工组织根据2014年185个国家和地区的可用数据指出,美国是唯一没有立法明确规定带薪产假的工业化国家。(注72)《洛杉矶时报》网站2015年5月6日报道,在美国高科技企业2013年的晋升过程中,白人男性比白人女性拥有42%的优势,相对亚裔女性的优势则高达260%。(注73) Women were suffering workplace discrimination. A report released by the U.S. Census Bureau in September 2015 revealed that women in the U.S. were paid 79 cents for every dollar paid to men in 2014, amounting to a yearly wage gap of 10,762 U.S. dollars between full-time working men and women (www.census.gov). The United Nations' International Labour Organization said in 2014 that out of the 185 countries and territories with available data, the United States was the only industrialized nation with no overall law for cash benefits provided to women during maternity leave (abcnews.go.com, May 6, 2015). A report at the website of the Los Angeles Times on May 6, 2015 said that white men had a 42 percent advantage over white women when it came to being promoted to the executive level in U.S. tech companies, but that paled in comparison to the 260 percent advantage they had to Asian women (www.latimes.com, May 6, 2015).
女性遭受不同形式的性骚扰和性侵犯。美国高等院校联合会2015年9月发布的调查结果显示,23%的大学本科女生遭受过性骚扰或性侵犯,20%的大学生认为性侵犯和不当性行为成为大学校园中极为严重的问题。(注74)据《今日美国》网站2015年8月17日报道,37%的美国女性曾遭受网络性骚扰,而拉美裔和非洲裔妇女遭受性骚扰的比例分别高达54%、51%。许多网络性骚扰发展为现实生活中的跟踪和性骚扰。(注75)据《今日美国》网站2015年12月11日报道,俄克拉荷马州前警官丹尼尔·霍尔茨克劳被控在自己巡逻的低收入社区中性侵女性。在他被判已经证实的18项罪名中,涉及的8名受害者均为非洲裔女性。(注76) Women fell victim to various forms of sex harassments and sex assaults. A survey released by the Association of American Universities in September 2015 indicated that 23 percent of undergraduate women said they were victims of non-consensual sexual contact and that 20 percent of students said sexual assault and misconduct was very or extremely problematic on their own campus (www.latimes.com, September 21, 2015; www.washingtonpost.com, September 1/September 21, 2015). According to a report at the USA Today website on August 17, 2015, a total of 37 percent of women said they had experienced some kind of online harassment. A total of 54 percent of Hispanics and 51 percent of African Americans said they had experienced online harassment. Also, women were more likely to be targets of serious cases in which they were stalked and sexually harassed (www.usatoday.com, August 17, 2015). Another article at the USA Today website on December 11, 2015 reported that Daniel Holtzclaw, a former Oklahoma City police officer, was convicted of sexually assaulting women he preyed upon in a low-income neighborhood he patrolled. He was convicted of 18 counts connected to eight women, all of whom were black (www.usatoday.com, December 11, 2015).
枪支威胁儿童安全。据美国“枪支暴力档案”网站发布的《2015年枪支暴力伤亡统计》,截至12月28日,美国2015年发生的枪击案件导致682名11岁以下的儿童伤亡,2640名12岁至17岁的青少年伤亡。(注77)据俄罗斯电视台网站2015年10月10日报道,当年美国已发生52起校园枪击案,每个月至少发生2起。(注78)据《今日美国》网站2015年1月22日报道,美国几乎每周都有两名儿童遭受意外枪击死亡,近三分之二的意外死亡发生在受害者的家里或者车中。(注79)根据美国儿科学会的调查,美国15岁以上因伤致死的青少年中,有四分之一死于枪击事件。(注80) Children were under the threats of guns. According to statistics from the Gun Violence Archive website, as of December 28, 2015, gun-related incidents that year left 682 children under the age of 11 and 2,640 children aged between 12 and 17 killed or injured (www.gunviolencearchive.org, December 28, 2015). The RT America reported at its website on October 10, 2015 that the number of U.S. school shootings that year climbed to 52. There were at least two school shootings a month in 2015 (www.rt.com, October 10, 2015). A report at the website of the USA Today on January 21, 2015 said that almost two children were killed every week in unintentional shootings, and nearly two thirds of these unintended deaths took place in a home or vehicle that belonged to the victim's family (www.usatoday.com, January 22, 2015). More than a quarter of the teenagers -- 15 years old and up -- who died of injuries in the United States were killed in gun-related incidents, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (www.theatlantic.com, January 12, 2015).
儿童健康和生活状况不佳。美国疾病和预防中心的统计显示,新生儿患有梅毒的比率在2012至2014年间增长了38%,是2001年以来的最高水平。(注81)美国正在接受治疗的吸毒者中,有五分之一是18岁之前通过父母初次接触毒品的。(注82)美国人口普查局的调查显示,2015年约有1740万儿童由单亲妈妈抚养,其中45%生活在贫困线以下。(注83)在纽约,近6%的非洲裔儿童和近3%的拉美裔儿童因无家可归需要求助于庇护所。(注84)《今日美国》网站2015年8月15日报道,47%的农村拉美裔婴儿和41%的城市拉美裔婴儿出生于贫困家庭。农村地区的婴儿很难享受到诸如联邦和州为妇女儿童提供的特殊营养项目,陷于贫困的可能性更大,“这些孩子一出生就输在了人生的起跑线上”。(注85) Poor health and living conditions for children. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that the rate of newborns with syphilis jumped 38 percent between 2012 and 2014 to its highest level in more than a decade (www.washingtonpost.com, November 12, 2015). A survey said that one in five drug abusers in some treatment programs in the United States received their first taste of these illegal substances from their parents, usually before the age of 18 (abcnews.go.com, August 24, 2015). According to U.S. Census Bureau, about 17.4 million children under the age of 18 were being raised without a father and 45 percent lived below the poverty line (singlemotherguide.com, June 1, 2015). About 6 percent of New York City's African-American population under 18 years old and nearly 3 percent Latino children utilized New York City shelters because of homelessness (www.coalitionforthehomeless.org, March 19, 2015). The USA Today website reported on August 15, 2015 that 47 percent of rural Hispanic babies were born poor, compared to 41 percent of Hispanic babies in urban areas. Hispanics babies born in rural enclaves were more likely to be impoverished and it was harder for them to receive help from federal and state programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. "These babies are starting behind the starting line." (www.usatoday.com, August 15, 2015)
儿童遭遇虐待。《华盛顿邮报》网站2015年1月1日报道,发生在华盛顿及周边地区的多数儿童死亡案件的作案人是家长或其他监护人。(注86)《迈阿密先驱报》网站2015年3月10日报道,在佛罗里达州,三分之一的女孩和五分之一的男孩在18岁前可能遭受性侵害。这些受虐经历会对受害者未来的生活造成严重的负面影响,平均每位受虐者会因为受害经历在其一生中失去250000美元的收入,一半的受害者在校学习成绩低于平均成绩。(注87) Children were suffering abuse. A report at the website of The Washington Post on January 1, 2015 said that among the young children killed in the D.C. region, the majority was killed by a parent or guardian (www.washingtonpost.com, January 1, 2015). The Miami Herald website on March 10, 2015 reported that one in three girls and one in five boys would become a victim of child sexual abuse in Florida before they turned 18. Such experience would have serious negative impact on their future lives. On average, each victim of child sexual abuse would lose 250,000 U.S. dollars in earnings throughout his or her lifetime because of the abuse. Fifty percent of victims had below-average grades (www.miamiherald.com, March 10, 2015).
非洲裔儿童成为警察暴力的受害者。美国有线电视新闻网财经频道网站2015年6月10日报道,得克萨斯州麦金利警察局的白人警察暴力对待一名14岁非洲裔女孩的视频在网上广泛传播。该警察在处置一起来自泳池聚会的报警时,大声辱骂几个非洲裔青少年,并将身穿泳衣的非洲裔女孩猛烈摔到地面,后来甚至拔出配枪对准他们。现场拍摄视频的白人目击者认为该警察的行为毫无疑问是出于种族主义动机。这一事件引发民众的抗议游行。(注88) 2015年10月26日,南卡罗来纳州春谷高中的驻校白人警察本·菲尔茨对一名非洲裔女生施暴的视频在网上引发民众愤慨。该校警猛掐这名在课堂上玩手机的女孩的颈部,将其连人带椅狠狠摔倒在地,最后拖出教室。菲尔茨2013年曾因不公平且粗暴对待非洲裔学生被告上法庭。美国全国有色人种协进会称,从未有白人学生遭受如此暴力对待。美国公民自由联盟南卡罗来纳州分支机构主管维多利亚·米德尔顿认为,无论出于何种目的,在课堂上对年轻孩子过度使用暴力的行为都无法容忍,“学校不应该成为孩子们被粗暴对待的地方”。(注89) African-American children fell victim to police violence. The CNN website on June 10, 2015 reported that a video went viral online showing violence by a white police officer of the Police Department in McKinney, Texas, against a 14-year-old African-American girl. The officer, called to a community swimming pool party after complaints, cursed at several black teenagers and yanked the girl wearing only a bikini to the ground. He also pointed his gun at the teenagers. The white witness who shot the video said there was no doubt race was a factor in how police responded. This incident triggered some public protests (edition.cnn.com, June 10, 2015). On October 26, 2015, a video that showed Ben Fields, a white school resource officer at Spring Valley High School in South Carolina, manhandling an African-American school girl drew intense criticism. The officer grabbed the girl, who used her cell phone during class, by the neck, flipped her over and dragged her across the floor. Fields in 2013 was named as a defendant in a federal lawsuit that claimed he "unfairly and recklessly targets African-American students." The U.S. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People criticized that such violence "doesn't affect white students". Victoria Middleton, the executive director for the South Carolina branch of the American Civil Liberties Union, said that regardless of the reason for the officer's actions, such egregious use of force - against young people who were sitting in their classrooms - was outrageous. "School should be a place to learn and grow, not a place to be brutalized." (abcnews.go.com, October 28, 2015)

(注70) 联合国人权高专办网站(www.ohchr.org),2015年12月11日。

(注71) 美国人口普查局报告,见www.census.gov。

(注72) 美国广播公司新闻网站(abcnews.go.com),2015年5月6日。

(注73) 《洛杉矶时报》网站(www.latimes.com),2015年5月6日。

(注74) 《洛杉矶时报》网站(www.latimes.com),2015年9月21日;《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年9月1日、21日。

(注75) 《今日美国》网站(www.usatoday.com),2015年8月17日。

(注76) 《今日美国》网站(www.usatoday.com),2015年12月11日。

(注77) 美国“枪支暴力档案”网站(www.gunviolencearchive.org),2015年12月28日。

(注78) 俄罗斯电视台网站(www.rt.com),2015年10月10日。

(注79) 《今日美国》网站(www.usatoday.com),2015年1月22日。

(注80) 美国《大西洋》月刊网站(www.theatlantic.com),2015年1月12日。

(注81) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年11月12日。

(注82) 美国广播公司新闻网站(abcnews.go.com),2015年8月24日。

(注83) singlemotherguide网站(singlemotherguide.com),2015年6月1日。

(注84) 无家可归者联盟网站(www.coalitionforthehomeless.org),2015年3月19日。

(注85) 《今日美国》网站(www.usatoday.com),2015年8月15日。

(注86) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年1月1日。

(注87) 《迈阿密先驱报》网站(www.miamiherald.com),2015年3月10日。

(注88) 美国有线电视新闻网财经频道网站(edition.cnn.com),2015年6月10日。

(注89) 美国广播公司新闻网站(abcnews.go.com),2015年10月28日。

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