发布时间: 2016-04-15 16:14:07  |  来源: 中国网  |  作者:  |  责任编辑: 李潇
六、粗暴侵犯他国人权 VI. Gross Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries
2015年,美国依然变本加厉侵犯他国人权,造成大量平民伤亡,海外监听项目侵犯公民隐私权,关塔那摩监狱的虐囚丑闻仍在继续。美国迄今未批准联合国多项核心人权公约,并对联合国重要人权决议投反对票。 In 2015, the United States continued to trample on human rights in other countries, causing tremendous civilian casualties. Its overseas monitoring projects infringed on the privacy of citizens of other countries while torture scandals at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp continued. Up to date, the United States has not ratified some core human rights conventions of the United Nations and voted against some important human rights resolutions.
空袭行动造成大量平民伤亡。据空中战争跟踪组织统计,2014年8月8日以来,美国不断组织联军对伊拉克和叙利亚境内武装进行空袭。截至2015年12月6日,美国空袭伊拉克3965次,空袭叙利亚2823次,据估算共造成两国境内1695至2239名平民死亡。(注90)叙利亚政府认为美国主导的空袭行动是赤裸裸的“侵略行为”。(注91)2015年10月3日,阿富汗昆都士的“无国界医生”组织医院受到美军持续近半小时的空袭,许多无法行动的病人在病床上被当场炸死,一些逃出医院的医护人员遭到空中扫射,共造成42人遇难,许多尸体难以辨认。(注92) Air strikes caused a large number of civilian casualties. According to Airwars, a project aimed at tracking air strikes in the Middle East, the United States had repeatedly organized coalition forces to launch air strikes against military forces in Iraq and Syria since August 8, 2014. As of December 6, 2015, the United States launched 3,965 air strikes in Iraq and 2,823 in Syria, causing an estimated number of civilian deaths between 1,695 and 2,239 (www.airwars.org). The Syrian government called U.S.-led coalition air strikes an "act of aggression" (www.independent.co.uk, December 7, 2015). On October 3, 2015, a hospital run by aid group "Doctors Without Borders" in the city of Kunduz in Afghanistan was under a bombing that continued for half an hour. Many patients who were unable to move were killed on site, while some staff of the aid group were shot at from the air while fleeing the hospital. A total of 42 people were killed in the air strike, with some bodies charred beyond recognition (www.sputniknews.com, December 12, 2015; www.abcnews.go.com, October 5, 2015).
频繁使用无人机滥杀无辜。英国《每日邮报》网站2015年10月15日报道,美国军队在执行无人机暗杀计划时仅仅使用追踪电话数据这一有限的方式来确定袭击目标。2012年1月至2013年2月美军在阿富汗东北部发动的一场代号为“干草机”的行动中,219人被炸死,其中仅有35人是预先要攻击的目标。在另一次长达5个月的行动中,90%被杀死的人都不是预先要攻击的目标,但是所有死者都被贴上了“阵亡敌人”的标签。(注93)《华盛顿邮报》网站2015年4月24日报道,根据一份研究报告,2001年“9·11”事件以来,美国在巴基斯坦和也门进行的415次无人机袭击中,估算造成423至962名平民死亡。(注94)美国滥用无人机袭击的做法,不仅受到国际社会的广泛批评,也被美国学术界强烈质疑。2015年3月20日,《华盛顿邮报》网站专门介绍了安德鲁·科伯恩所著的《杀人链条:高科技暗杀的兴起》和格里高利·查马尤所著的《无人机原理》两本书。安德鲁·科伯恩认为,“美国在全球部署具有毁灭性军事力量的过程中,无人机轰炸政策是其中一种充满着谎言、欺骗和贪婪的历史模式的顶点,是此前美国暗杀政策的延续。无人机轰炸政策不但没有实现加强美国国家安全的目标,而且还削弱了民主的进程,并在被空袭国制造了混乱,成为滋生极端主义的温床。”查马尤和科伯恩强调,无人机轰炸是一种“非人道的战争方式”,“用无人机作战,没有胜利者,只有屠杀”。(注95) A frequent use of drones claimed many innocent lives. According to an October 15, 2015 report run by Daily Mail website, when carrying out drone assassinations, the U.S. military used "phone data alone" -- a limited way of guaranteeing a kill. During Operation Haymaker, a campaign in northeastern Afghanistan which ran between January 2012 and February 2013, some 219 people were killed by drones but just 35 were the intended targets. During another five-month stretch of the operation, a staggering 90 percent of those killed were not the intended target. Despite this all the deaths were labeled EKIA, or "enemy killed in action." (www.dailymail.co.uk, October 15, 2015). A report posted on April 24, 2015 by The Washington Post on its website said a study, which documented 415 strikes in Pakistan and Yemen since the September 11, 2001 attacks, put the total number of killed civilians between 423 and 962 (www.washingtonpost.com, April 24, 2015). The abuse of drone strikes not only drew widespread criticism from international community, but also incurred strong doubt from U.S. scholars. The Washington Post posted an article on March 20, 2015, introducing to its readers two books on drones - Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins, by Andrew Cockburn, and A Theory of the Drones, by Gregoire Chamayou. Cockburn sees America's killer drone policy as "the culmination of a historical pattern of lies, deception and greed in the deployment of lethal military force around the world" and as "a continuation of previous U.S. assassination policy." Failing miserably to achieve the country's stated goal of enhanced security, the policy simultaneously undermined the democratic process, Cockburn writes, noting that "assassination by robot is bound to inspire rather than curtail extremism." According to Chamayou and Cockburn, killer drone exposes the trend toward a new -- and "inhumane form of warfare." "With drone warfare, there is no victory, just perpetual elimination." (www.washingtonpost.com, March 20, 2015).
滥用酷刑践踏人权。美国参议院情报委员会公布的中情局虐囚报告指出,中情局使用的水刑、长期单独囚禁、将囚犯头部猛力撞墙和抽打乃至死亡威胁等审讯手段大大超出了法律所允许的范围。(注96)而根据有关嫌疑人的说法,美国的虐囚行为远远超出了报告所披露的内容。英国《卫报》网站2015年6月2日报道,曾被关押在关塔那摩监狱的囚犯马吉德·可汗说,审讯官将冰水倒在他的生殖器上,两次对其裸体进行录像,并不停地触摸他的“私处”;他的双脚和小腿都被放置于形如高筒靴的金属铐中,这种金属铐戳入他的肉中,使他的双腿难以动弹;狱警将他赤身裸体悬挂在木梁上长达三天,期间只提供少量饮用水而没有任何食物——他所遭受的这些酷刑都没有被写入参议院报告。(注97) 2016年1月11日,包括联合国酷刑问题特别报告员门德斯、在反恐中促进和保护人权问题特别报告员埃默森、法官和律师独立性问题特别报告员平托、任意拘留问题工作组主席洪晟弼以及欧安组织民主机构与人权办公室主任林克在内的人权专家共同发表公开信,敦促美国政府尽早关闭关塔那摩监狱。关塔那摩监狱已经建立14年之久,截至2016年1月11日,仍有近100人在被任意拘留多年且未经审判的情况下被继续羁押。(注98) Abuse of cruel torture trampled on human rights. A report by the U.S. Senate on the study of the Central Intelligence Agency's detention and interrogation program found that the CIA's use of brutal interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding, long-term solitary confinement, slamming prisoners' heads into walls, lashing and death threat, were in serious violation of U.S. law (www.intelligence.senate.gov). While according to some witnesses, the CIA torture went far beyond the Senate report had disclosed. Majid Khan, a Guantanamo Bay detainee-turned government cooperating witness, said interrogators poured ice water on his genitals, twice videotaped him naked and repeatedly touched his "private parts". At one point, Khan said, his feet and lower legs were placed in tall boot-like metal cuffs that dug into his flesh and immobilized his legs. The guards also stripped him naked, hung him from a wooden beam for three days and provided him with water but no food. All the above torture details that Khan had undergone were not included in the Senate report (www.theguardian.com, June 2, 2015). On January 11, 2016, human rights experts, including the UN special rapporteurs on torture Juan E. Mendez; on human rights and counterterrorism, Ben Emmerson; on independence of the judiciary, Monica Pinto; Chair-Rapporteur of the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention Seong-Phil Hong; and the director of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights under the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Michael Georg Link, together called on the U.S. Government to promptly close the Guantanamo Bay detention facility, 14 years after the detention center became operational. The experts recalled in the letter that close to 100 detainees still languished in Guantanamo after years of arbitrary detention without trial (www.un.org, January 11, 2016).
对他国政要实施监听。英国广播公司网站2015年4月30日披露,美国国家安全局长期监听欧洲国家领导人。(注99)英国《独立报》2015年6月24日报道,美国先后对3位法国总统和其他政府高官进行了长期的电话监听,对此法国政府发言人表示“无法接受”。(注100)尽管受到来自盟国的批评,美国政府依然以国家安全为由决定对部分国家领导人实施监听。(注101) The United States spied on leaders from other countries. The BBC reported on April 30, 2015 that the U.S. National Security Agency, by working with other secret services, has long monitored on European leaders (www.bbc.com, April 30, 2015). The Independent reported on June 24, 2015 that the United States had bugged the phones of three French presidents and many other senior French officials, for which a French government spokesman said was "unacceptable" (www.independent.co.uk, June 24, 2015). Facing criticism from its allies, the U.S. government continued to monitor some leaders in the name of "national security purpose" (www.theguardian.com, December 30, 2015).
美国口口声声标榜“人权”,以“人权卫士”自居,但时至今日,美国仍不批准《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《儿童权利公约》《残疾人权利公约》等联合国核心人权公约。美国是当今世界唯一没有批准《儿童权利公约》的国家。对于国际人权事务,美国也经常采取不合作态度。对于联合国人权理事会特别机制以及联合国人权事务高级专员等对美国人权状况提出的批评,美国政府经常予以拖延或置若罔闻。2015年9月28日联合国人权理事会通过有关发展权的决议时,美国一如既往地投了反对票。(注102) Though the United States repeatedly vowed to defend "human rights," it still has not ratified core human rights conventions of the UN, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The United States is the only country that is yet to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The United States also takes an uncooperative attitude towards international human rights issues. It often kept stalling or turned a deaf ear to criticisms leveled by the UN Human Rights Council special sessions and High Commissioners for Human Rights. On September 28, 2015 when the UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution related to development right, the United States, as always, voted against it (www.un.org).

(注90) 空中战争跟踪组织网站(airwars.org)。

(注91) 英国《独立报》网站(www.independent.co.uk),2015年12月7日。

(注92) Sputnik news网站(sputniknews.com),2015年12月12日;美国广播公司新闻网站(abcnews.go.com),2015年10月5日。

(注93) 英国《每日邮报》网站(www.dailymail.co.uk),2015年10月15日。

(注94) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年4月24日。

(注95) 《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2015年3月20日。

(注96) 美国参议院情报委员会报告,见www.intelligence.senate.gov。

(注97) 英国《卫报》网站(www.theguardian.com),2015年6月2日。

(注98) 联合国新闻网(www.un.org),2016年1月11日。

(注99) 英国广播公司网站(www.bbc.com),2015年4月30日。

(注100) 英国《独立报》网站(www.independent.co.uk),2015年6月24日。

(注101) 英国《卫报》网站(www.theguardian.com),2015年12月30日。

(注102) 联合国网站(www.un.org),联合国文件A/HRC/30/L.12。

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